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五分3d60秒:“啪啪啪啪啪啪啪”,越热越嗨越聒噪的枪虾

时间: 2020年03月13日 | 作者: Admin | 来源: 领研网(linkresearcher.com)



随着海洋温度上升,无处不在的枪虾“噪音”也会增多,这给其他海洋物种以及大分一分彩类海上航行活动构成了不小的问题。


 [听力全文]


[Snapping shrimp sound]


Rice Krispies? Rain hitting a tin roof? Bacon frying? How about noisy creatures known as snapping shrimp.


Warm temperate and tropical coastal waters around the world are teeming with these noisy little creatures. They snap their claws so fast that they produce a bubble. When the bubble bursts, it makes a loud popping sound. 


“It's this sort of persistent background noise, these snapping shrimp kind of crackling.”


Aran Mooney, a marine biologist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.


The shrimp produce the loud sound to stun prey. So how would this persistent background noise be affected by oceans getting warmer in coming years. To find out, Mooney and his colleague Ashlee Lillis analyzed audio recordings of the critters in their natural environment.


They also performed lab experiments with snapping shrimp collected from the wild, in water of varying temperatures. And they found that when water heats up, the shrimp start snapping more—and the water’s soundscape gets louder. They shared their findings in February at the Ocean Sciences Meeting 2020 in San Diego.


The researchers aren’t sure what’s causing this change in shrimp behavior—but they have an idea. “We don’t precisely know the mechanism of why they’re snapping more often. What we think is that these guys are basically just ectothermic animals. So that means they're directly responding to environmental conditions around them….so basically as you increase the water temperature, it increases their metabolic rate—they get more metabolically active, so they are able or trying to snap more.”  


If these shrimp do make the ocean noisier as the climate warms, both marine creatures and humans could face new problems. Many ocean animals use sound to communicate. And both the Navy and fishermen rely on marine acoustics to do their work. 


“You know, we never really thought about how that ocean background noise or its own fog is sort of naturally increasing, in what we think is temperature driven or climate change driven...so as you raise those levels, it gets harder to ‘see’ through that acoustic fog.”


—Annie Sneed



 [重难点词汇、短语]


snapping shrimp: n. 枪虾,又称鼓虾,学名Alpheus heterochaelis

teem: v. 充满,遍布

stun: v. 击昏,打昏;使震惊;使惊叹

ectothermic: adj. 变温的,变温动物的



 [参考译文]


[啪啪啪啪啪啪啪啪啪]


米花爆破声?雨点砸上铁皮屋顶的声音?培根煎的嗞油声?你可能想不到这来自聒噪十级的枪虾。

 

这些嘈杂的小虾虾遍布在世界各地温暖的温带和热带沿海水域中,它们闭合大螯的速度极快,会导致气泡的产生,而气泡破裂时就会发出很大“嘭啪”声。

 

“正是这种持续的背景噪音——这些啪啪响的枪虾们。”伍兹霍尔海洋研究所(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)的海洋生物学家亚兰·穆尼(Aran Mooney)说道。

 

枪虾靠这种响亮的声音把猎物震晕,那么,未来几年海洋的不断变暖将如何影响这种持续的背景噪声呢?为了找出答案,穆尼和同事阿什莉·利利斯(Ashlee Lillis)分析了自然环境中小枪虾啪啪声的录音。

 

他们还进行了实验室研究,研究对象来自不同温度的水域中捕捞而来的野生枪虾,结果发现:当水温升高时,枪虾开始更多地“嘭嘭啪啪”,水中的声音背景也更大了。在2月于圣地亚哥举行的2020年海洋五分3d会议(Ocean Sciences Meeting 2020)上,他们分享了这一发现。

 

研究大分一分彩员还不确定导致了虾类行为改变的具体原因,但他们有一个猜想:“我们不完全了解它们嘭嘭啪啪得更频繁的机制,我们认为,这些小家伙基本上来说是变温动物,这意味着它们会直接对身处的环境条件做出反应。因此,基本上水温升高时,它们的代谢率也随之提高,它们的代谢活性更高,也就能够或试图更多地开合大螯。

 

如果这些虾确实会随着气候变暖而使海洋更加嘈杂,那么海洋生物和大分一分彩类都将面临新的问题,因为许多海洋动物都使用声音进行交流,而海军和渔民则会依靠海洋声学来进行作业。

 

“要知道,我们从来没有真正考虑过海洋背景噪音,或者说这种‘迷雾’是如何自然增加的,我们一直认为是温度或气候变化所致。因此,温度升高、气候变暖会让‘声音迷雾’更难被拨开。”


翻译 想安静下来的枪虾